Song Lin,# Christian S. Diercks,#Yue-Biao Zhang,# Nikolay Kornienko, Eva M. Nichols, Yingbo Zhao, Aubrey R. Paris, 
Dohyung Kim, Peidong Yang, Omar M. Yaghi,* and Christopher J. Chang,*
Science 2015, 349, 1208‒1213.
Conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) and other value-added carbon products is an important challenge for clean energy research. Here we report modular optimization of covalent organic frameworks (COFs), in which the building units are cobalt porphyrin catalysts linked by organic struts through imine bonds, to prepare a catalytic material for aqueous electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO. The catalysts exhibit high Faradaic efficiency (90%) and turnover numbers (up to 290,000, with initial turnover frequency of 9400 hour−1) at pH 7 with an overpotential of –0.55 volts, equivalent to a 26-fold improvement in activity compared with the molecular cobalt complex, with no degradation over 24 hours. X-ray absorption data reveal the influence of the COF environment on the electronic structure of the catalytic cobalt centers.